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No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India

This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got.
I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are)
Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010.
One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit.
Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells.
So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain).
Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
Moving on:
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Convenient.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
- Chandra et al. (1989)
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided.
It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)

Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles. India bought something and paid for it. State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.

Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.

The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.

Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
Dewey (1978) points out reliability issues with Indian agriculutural statistics, however this calorie decline persists to this day. Some of it is attributed to less food being consumed at home Smith (2015), a lower infectious disease burden Duh & Spears (2016) and diversified diets Vankatesh et al. (2016).
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally.
Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no.
From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period, the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
A view echoed in Raychaudhuri (1983):
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground.
1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example see Rajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
or see Bryant 2000:
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist. [...] Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.

Bibliography

Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press
Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian
Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost
Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian
Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice
Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times
Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan
Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times
Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia
Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review
Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books
Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press
Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire
Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press
Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press
Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press
Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy
Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal
Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review
Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly
Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press
Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History
Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press
Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History
Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
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Immediate Aftermath : The more data we collect and analyze, the clearer the picture becomes.

This is the updated first part of the list that has recorded the notable events as the world deals with the COVID-19 pandemic. [2nd Part] ― The LINKS to events and sources are placed throughout the timeline.
------------------------
The More Data We Collect and Analyze, the Clearer the Picture Becomes.
Someone threw a stone in a pond a long way away. And we're only just feeling the ripples. — Fukuhara from Giri/Haji, Netflix series
------------------------
On Jan 30, Italian PM announced that Italy had blocked all flights to and from China. While Italy has banned people from air-travelling to China, however according to IATA data, there's no measurement implemented for air-travellers from China into Italy till the Mar 07. Especially for Chinese people who have EU passports.
On Jan 31, the US announced the category-I travel restrictions, barring all foreigners who have been in China for the past 14 days, with measures including the refusal of visas and mandatory quarantine.
• "Because the US focused on China and didn't expect the infected people's entry from Europe and the Middle East, the Maginot Line was breached from behind. And so little of credible data at the beginning made the US government to miscalculate its strategic response to the virus." — Dr. Zhang Lun, currently a visiting scholar at Harvard (economics & sociology), during the interview with ICPC on Mar 29.
Also on Jan 31, the WHO changed its tune and declared the coronavirus outbreak a Global Public Health Emergency of international concern (PHEIC).
Decisions on a PHEIC always involve politics .... West African countries discouraged a declaration in 2014 after they were hit by the largest Ebola virus outbreak on record, mainly because of concern about the economic impact.
------------------------
On Feb 02, regarding the US category-I travel restrictions, Kamala Harris, the former Democratic presidential candidate, declared on Twitter:
Since 2017, Trump’s travel bans have never been rooted in national security—they’re about discriminating against people of color. They are, without a doubt, rooted in anti-immigrant, white supremacist ideologies. This travel ban is no different.
On Feb 03, criticizing Trump for his travel restrictions continues. Chinese foreign ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying (华春莹), a Peking University professors James Liang (梁建章), New York Times, the Nation, OBSERVER, the Boston Globe, Yahoo, and Daily Kos were saying,
it's a "panicky" decision and "racist" or it's "cruel and callous," he's stoking fear for political gains, and the president is "inappropriately overreacting." And professors Liang even said the US ban "will hurt goodwill and cooperation [with China] in the future." [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]
Also on Feb 03, Mr. Tedros of the WHO said there's no need for travel ban measure that "unnecessarily interfere with international travel and trade" trying to halt the spread of the virus.
China's delegate took the floor ... and denounced measures by "some countries" that have denied entry to people holding passports issued in Hubei province - at the centre of the outbreak - and to deny visas and cancel flights.
Also on Feb 03, China is expected to gradually implement a larger stimulus packages (in total) than a USD $572 billion from 2008. — We'd never find out but my guess is that the fund will probably go to Shanghai clique.
On Feb 04, The FDA has given emergency authorization to a new test kit by the CDC that promises to help public health labs meet a potential surge in cases.
The speed ... pushing through a new diagnostic test shows just how seriously they’re taking the potentially pandemic threat of 2019-nCoV. It’s also a sign that the world is starting to learn how to deal with an onslaught of new pathogens.
Also on Feb 04, the Wuhan Institute of Virology and China's Academy of Military Medical Sciences (AMMS, Chief Chen Wei belongs to) have jointly applied to patent the use of Remdesivir. Scientists from both institutes said in a paper published in Nature’s Cell Research that they found both Remdesivir and Chloroquine to be an effective way to inhibit the coronavirus.
On Feb 06, Jamestown Foundation, a Washington-based research & analysis unit, noted that with State Council of PRC praising his performance of containing the pandemic situation, the council expanded Li Keqiang's political control over Politburo Standing Committee of CCP. (Li Keqiang = Communist Youth League = Shanghai clique)
Also, on Feb 06, as the US evacuation planes leave China, the wave of the US evacuees have arrived who are met by the CDC personnel at the quarantine sites for screening, and those who were suspected of infection will be placed under quarantine for 14 days.
Also, on Feb 06, a CDC-developed lab test kit to detect the new coronavirus began shipping to qualified US laboratories and international ones. — However, on Feb 12, the CDC said some of the testing kits have flaws and do not work properly. The CDC finally ended up shipping the working test kits for mass testings on Feb 27. This was three weeks later than originally planned.
On Feb 07, China National Petroleum has recently declared Force Majeure on gas imports. They are trying to create a breathing room for their foreign exchange reserves shortage. China's foreign exchange reserves fell to mere USD $3.1 trillion in Oct. 2019.
On the same day, Bloomberg reported that PetroChina has directed employees in 20 countries to buy N95 face masks and send them home in China. The goal is to get 2 million masks shipped back. You can also find YouTube videos that show Overseas Chinese are scouring the masks at the Home Depot to ship them to China (the video in Korean). Also Chris Smith is pissed.
On Feb 09, Trump renews his national emergency on its southern border, and Elizabeth Goitein from the Brennan Center for Justice, published an opinion article on New York Times titled "Trump Has Abused This Power. And He Will Again if He’s Not Stopped."
On Feb 10, Dr. Tedros said that an advance three-person team of the WHO arrived in Beijing for a joint mission to discuss with Chinese officials the agenda and questions. Then, the joint mission of about 10 international experts will soon follow, he said. — Those WHO experts ended up visiting Chinese epicentre for the first time on Feb 24.
On Feb 12, the US targets Russian oil company for helping Venezuela skirt sanctions. The US admin seemingly tried to secure leverage against Russia after noticing something suspicious was up.
On the same day, Trump told Reuters "I hope this outbreak or this event (for the US) may be over in something like April." — Dr. Zhong Nanshan (钟南山), China's top tier SARS-hero doctor, also said "the peak of the virus (for China) should come in mid to late February, followed by a plateau or decrease," adding that his forecast was based on on mathematical modelling and data from recent events and government action.
On Feb 13, Tom Frieden who is a former US CDC chief and currently the head of public health nonprofit Resolve to Save Lives, said:
As countries are trying to develop their own control strategies, they are looking for evidence of whether the situation in China is getting worse or better. [But] We still don't have very basic information. [since the WHO just entered China] We hope that information will be coming out.
On the same day, the CDC reports that the 15th case in the US was confirmed. The patient was a part of group who were under a federal quarantine order at the JBSA-Lackland base because of a recent trip to Hubei Province, China.
By Feb 13, China hasn't accepted the US CDC's offer to send top experts, and they haven't released the "disaggregated" data (specific figures broken out from the overall numbers) even though repeatedly been asked.
On Feb 14, CCP's United Front posted an article on its official website, saying (Eng. text by Google Translation):
Fast! There is no time difference to raise urgently needed materials! Some Overseas Chinese have used their professions in the field of medicine in order to purchase relevant materials Hubei province in short of supply (to send them to China). .... Some Overseas Chinese took advantage of the connection resources, opened green transportation channels through our embassies and consulates abroad, and their related enterprises, and quickly sent large quantities of medical supplies (to China), making this love relay link and cooperation seamless.
On Feb 18, Reuters reports that 3M is on the list of firms eligible for China loans to ease coronavirus crisis.
There is no indication from the list that loans offered will necessarily be sought, or that such firms are in any financial need. The Bank of Shanghai told Reuters it will lend 5.5 billion yuan ($786 million) to 57 firms on its list.
On Feb 21, Xi Jinping writes a thank-you letter to Bill Gates for his foundation’s support to China regarding COVID-19 outbreak.
On Feb 24, China was rumoured on Twitter to delay the phase one trade deal implementation indefinitely which includes the increase of China's purchasing American products & services by at least $200 billion over the next two years.
Also on Feb 24, S&P 500 Index started to drop. Opened with 3225.9 and closed 3128.2. By the Mar 23, it dropped to 2208.9.
Also on Feb 24, China's National Health Commission says the WHO experts have visited Wuhan city for the first time, the locked-down central Chinese city at the epicentre, inspecting two hospitals and a makeshift one at a sports centre.
On Feb 26, IF the picture that has been circulated on Twitter were real, then chief Chen Wei and her team have developed the first batch of COVID-19 vaccine within time frame of a month.
On the same day, the CDC's latest figures displays 59 people in the US who have tested positive for COVID-19.
Also on Feb 26, the Washington Post published an article that says:
.... the WHO said it has repeatedly asked Chinese officials for "disaggregated" data — meaning specific figures broken out from the overall numbers — that could shed light on hospital transmission and help assess the level of risk front-line workers face. "We received disaggregated information at intervals, though not details about health care workers," said Tarik Jasarevic of the WHO. — The comment, in an email on Feb 22 to the Post, was one of the first instances that the WHO had directly addressed shortcomings in China's reporting or handling of the coronavirus crisis.
On Feb 27, after missteps, the CDC says its test kit is ready and the US started to expand testing.
On Feb 28, China transferred more than 80,000 Uighurs to factories used by global brands such as Apple, Nike, & Volkswagen & among others.
Also on Feb 28, the WHO published the official report of the WHO-China joint mission on coronavirus disease 2019. (PDF)
On Feb 29, quoting Caixin media's investigation published on the same day, Lianhe Zaobao, the largest Singapore-based Chinese-language newspaper, published an article reporting the following:
Dr. Li Wenliang said in the interview with Caixin media; [in Dec 2019] another doctor (later turned out to be Dr. Ai Fen) examined and tried to treat a patient who exhibited SARS-like symptoms which akin to influenza resistant to conventional treatment methods. And "the family members who took care of her (the patient) that night also had a fever, and her other daughter also had a fever. This is obviously from person to person" Dr. Li said in the interview."
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On Mar 01, China's State Council super tighten up their already draconian internet law.
On the same day, Princelings published an propaganda called "A Battle Against Epidemic: China Combating COVID-19 in 2020" which compiles numerous state media accounts on the heroic leadership of Xi Jinping, the vital role of the Communist Party, and the superiority of the Chinese system in fighting the virus.
Starting on Mar 03, the US Fed has taken two significant measures to provide monetary stimulus. It's going to be no use as if a group of people with serious means are manipulating the markets to make sure MM will have liquidity concerns when they need it most.
On Mar 04, Xinhua News, China's official state-run press agency posted an article "Be bold: the world should thank China" which states that
If China retaliates against the US at this time, it will also announce strategic control over medical products, and ban exports of said products to the US. ... If China declares today that its drugs are for domestic use only, the US will fall into the hell of new coronavirus epidemic.
On Mar 05, Shanghai Index has recovered the coronavirus loss almost completely.
On Mar 07, Saudi's Ahmed bin Abdulaziz and Muhammad bin Nayef were arrested on the claims of plotting to overthrow King Salman. — Ahmed bin Abdulaziz is known to have very tight investment-interest relationship with Bill Gates, Bill Browder, Blackstone, & BlackRock: One common factor that connects these people is China.
On Mar 08, the Russia–Saudi oil price war has begun. The ostensible reason was simple: China, the biggest importer of oil from Saudi and Russia, was turning back tankers while claiming that the outbreak forced its economy to a standstill.
On Mar 10, the Washington Post published the article saying that the trade group for manufacturers of personal protective equipment urged in 2009 "immediate action" to restock the national stockpile including N95 masks, but it hasn't been replenished since.
On Mar 11, the gentleman at the WHO declares the coronavirus outbreak a "Global Pandemic." He called on governments to change the course of the outbreak by taking "urgent and aggressive action." This was a full twelve days after the organization published the official report regarding the situation in China.
On Mar 13, the US admin declared a National Emergency and announced the plan to release $50 billion in federal resources amid COVID-19.
Also on Mar 13, China's Ministry of Commerce states that China is now the best region for global investment hedging.
On Mar 15, Business Insider reports that Trump tried to poach German scientists working on a coronavirus vaccine and offered cash so it would be exclusive to the US. The problem is the official CureVac (the German company) twitter account, on Mar 16, 2020, tweeted the following:
To make it clear again on coronavirus: CureVac has not received from the US government or related entities an offer before, during and since the Task Force meeting in the White House on March 2. CureVac rejects all allegations from press.
On Mar 16, the fan club of European globalists has published a piece titled, "China and Coronavirus: From Home-Made Disaster to Global Mega-Opportunity." The piece says:
The Chinese method is the only method that has proved successful [in fighting the virus], is a message spread online in China by influencers, including many essentially promoting propaganda. ... it is certainly a message that seems to be resonating with opinion leaders around the world.
On the same day, unlike China that had one epicentre, Wuhan city, the US now overtakes China with most cases reporting multiple epicentres simultaneously.
Also on Mar 16, the US stocks ended sharply lower with the Dow posting its worst point drop in history. But some showed a faint hint of uncertain hope.
On Mar 17, according to an article on Chinese version of Quora, Zhihu, chief Chen Wei and her team with CanSino Biologics officially initiated a Phase-1 clinical trial for COVID-19 vaccine at the Wuhan lab, Hubei China, which Bloomberg News confirmed. — Click HERE, then set its time period as 1 year, and see when the graph has started to move up.
Also on Mar 17, China's state media, China Global TV Network (CGTN), has produced YouTube videos for Middle Eastern audiences to spread the opinion that the US has engineered COVID-19 events.
Also on Mar 17, Al Jazeera reported that the US President has been criticized for repeatedly referring to the coronavirus as the "Chinese Virus" as critics saying Trump is "fueling bigotry."
• China's Xinhua News tweeted "Racism is not the right tool to cover your own incompetence."
• Tucker Carlson asked: "Why would America's media take China's side amid coronavirus pandemic?"
• Also, Mr. Bill Gates: "We should not call this the Chinese virus."
On Mar 19, for the first time, China reports zero local infections.
Also on Mar 19, Al Jazeera published an analysis report, titled "Coronavirus erodes Trump's re-election prospects."
On Mar 22, Bloomberg reports that China's mobile carriers lost 21 million users during this pandemic event. It's said to be the first net decline since starting to report monthly data in 2000.
On Mar 26, EURACTV reports that China cashes in off coronavirus, selling Spain $466 million in supplies. However, Spain returns 9,000 "quick result" test kits to China, because they were deemed substandard. — Especially the sensibility of the test was around 30 percent, when it should be higher than 80 percent.
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On Apr 03, Germany and other governments are bolstering corporate defenses to address worries that coronavirus-weakened companies could be easy prey for bargain hunting by China's state owned businesses.
On Apr 05, New York Times says "Trump Again Promotes Use of Unproven Anti-Malaria Drug (hydroxychloroquine)."
On Apr 06, a Democratic State Rep. Karen Whitsett from Detroit credits hydroxychloroquine and President Trump for "saving her in her battle with the coronavirus."
On Apr 07, the US CDC removed the following part from its website.
Although optimal dosing and duration of hydroxychloroquine for treatment of COVID-19 are unknown, some U.S. clinicians have reported anecdotally different hydroxychloroquine dosing such as: 400mg BID on day one, then daily for 5 days; 400 mg BID on day one, then 200mg BID for 4 days; 600 mg BID on day one, then 400mg daily on days 2-5.
------------------------
☞ If there were ever a time for people not to be partisan and tribal, the time has come: We need to be ever vigilant and attentive to all kinds of disinformation & misinformation to see it better as well as to be sharp in our lives. — We really do need to come together.
☞ At first, I was going to draw up a conspiracy theory-oriented list focused on Team-Z, especially Mr. Gates. However, although it's nothing new tbh, recently many chats and discussions seem overflowing with disinformation & misinformation which is, in my opinion, particularly painful at a time like this. Hence, this post became a vanilla list that's just recorded the notable events. — We all are subject to misinformation, miscalculation, and misjudgment. But the clearer the picture becomes the better we can identify Funkspiel.
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Immediate Aftermath pt.2.a
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Feasible Timeline of the Operation
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☞ Go Back to the Short Story.
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submitted by vanillabluesea to conspiracy [link] [comments]

Hibiscus Petroleum Berhad (5199.KL)


https://preview.redd.it/gp18bjnlabr41.jpg?width=768&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6054e7f52e8d52da403016139ae43e0e799abf15
Download PDF of this article here: https://docdro.id/6eLgUPo
In light of the recent fall in oil prices due to the Saudi-Russian dispute and dampening demand for oil due to the lockdowns implemented globally, O&G stocks have taken a severe beating, falling approximately 50% from their highs at the beginning of the year. Not spared from this onslaught is Hibiscus Petroleum Berhad (Hibiscus), a listed oil and gas (O&G) exploration and production (E&P) company.
Why invest in O&G stocks in this particularly uncertain period? For one, valuations of these stocks have fallen to multi-year lows, bringing the potential ROI on these stocks to attractive levels. Oil prices are cyclical, and are bound to return to the mean given a sufficiently long time horizon. The trick is to find those companies who can survive through this downturn and emerge into “normal” profitability once oil prices rebound.
In this article, I will explore the upsides and downsides of investing in Hibiscus. I will do my best to cater this report to newcomers to the O&G industry – rather than address exclusively experts and veterans of the O&G sector. As an equity analyst, I aim to provide a view on the company primarily, and will generally refrain from providing macro views on oil or opinions about secular trends of the sector. I hope you enjoy reading it!
Stock code: 5199.KL
Stock name: Hibiscus Petroleum Berhad
Financial information and financial reports: https://www.malaysiastock.biz/Corporate-Infomation.aspx?securityCode=5199
Company website: https://www.hibiscuspetroleum.com/

Company Snapshot

Hibiscus Petroleum Berhad (5199.KL) is an oil and gas (O&G) upstream exploration and production (E&P) company located in Malaysia. As an E&P company, their business can be basically described as:
· looking for oil,
· drawing it out of the ground, and
· selling it on global oil markets.
This means Hibiscus’s profits are particularly exposed to fluctuating oil prices. With oil prices falling to sub-$30 from about $60 at the beginning of the year, Hibiscus’s stock price has also fallen by about 50% YTD – from around RM 1.00 to RM 0.45 (as of 5 April 2020).
https://preview.redd.it/3dqc4jraabr41.png?width=641&format=png&auto=webp&s=7ba0e8614c4e9d781edfc670016a874b90560684
https://preview.redd.it/lvdkrf0cabr41.png?width=356&format=png&auto=webp&s=46f250a713887b06986932fa475dc59c7c28582e
While the company is domiciled in Malaysia, its two main oil producing fields are located in both Malaysia and the UK. The Malaysian oil field is commonly referred to as the North Sabah field, while the UK oil field is commonly referred to as the Anasuria oil field. Hibiscus has licenses to other oil fields in different parts of the world, notably the Marigold/Sunflower oil fields in the UK and the VIC cluster in Australia, but its revenues and profits mainly stem from the former two oil producing fields.
Given that it’s a small player and has only two primary producing oil fields, it’s not surprising that Hibiscus sells its oil to a concentrated pool of customers, with 2 of them representing 80% of its revenues (i.e. Petronas and BP). Fortunately, both these customers are oil supermajors, and are unlikely to default on their obligations despite low oil prices.
At RM 0.45 per share, the market capitalization is RM 714.7m and it has a trailing PE ratio of about 5x. It doesn’t carry any debt, and it hasn’t paid a dividend in its listing history. The MD, Mr. Kenneth Gerard Pereira, owns about 10% of the company’s outstanding shares.

Reserves (Total recoverable oil) & Production (bbl/day)

To begin analyzing the company, it’s necessary to understand a little of the industry jargon. We’ll start with Reserves and Production.
In general, there are three types of categories for a company’s recoverable oil volumes – Reserves, Contingent Resources and Prospective Resources. Reserves are those oil fields which are “commercial”, which is defined as below:
As defined by the SPE PRMS, Reserves are “… quantities of petroleum anticipated to be commercially recoverable by application of development projects to known accumulations from a given date forward under defined conditions.” Therefore, Reserves must be discovered (by drilling, recoverable (with current technology), remaining in the subsurface (at the effective date of the evaluation) and “commercial” based on the development project proposed.)
Note that Reserves are associated with development projects. To be considered as “commercial”, there must be a firm intention to proceed with the project in a reasonable time frame (typically 5 years, and such intention must be based upon all of the following criteria:)
- A reasonable assessment of the future economics of the development project meeting defined investment and operating criteria; - A reasonable expectation that there will be a market for all or at least the expected sales quantities of production required to justify development; - Evidence that the necessary production and transportation facilities are available or can be made available; and - Evidence that legal, contractual, environmental and other social and economic concerns will allow for the actual implementation of the recovery project being evaluated.
Contingent Resources and Prospective Resources are further defined as below:
- Contingent Resources: potentially recoverable volumes associated with a development plan that targets discovered volumes but is not (yet commercial (as defined above); and) - Prospective Resources: potentially recoverable volumes associated with a development plan that targets as yet undiscovered volumes.
In the industry lingo, we generally refer to Reserves as ‘P’ and Contingent Resources as ‘C’. These ‘P’ and ‘C’ resources can be further categorized into 1P/2P/3P resources and 1C/2C/3C resources, each referring to a low/medium/high estimate of the company’s potential recoverable oil volumes:
- Low/1C/1P estimate: there should be reasonable certainty that volumes actually recovered will equal or exceed the estimate; - Best/2C/2P estimate: there should be an equal likelihood of the actual volumes of petroleum being larger or smaller than the estimate; and - High/3C/3P estimate: there is a low probability that the estimate will be exceeded.
Hence in the E&P industry, it is easy to see why most investors and analysts refer to the 2P estimate as the best estimate for a company’s actual recoverable oil volumes. This is because 2P reserves (‘2P’ referring to ‘Proved and Probable’) are a middle estimate of the recoverable oil volumes legally recognized as “commercial”.
However, there’s nothing stopping you from including 2C resources (riskier) or utilizing 1P resources (conservative) as your estimate for total recoverable oil volumes, depending on your risk appetite. In this instance, the company has provided a snapshot of its 2P and 2C resources in its analyst presentation:
https://preview.redd.it/o8qejdyc8br41.png?width=710&format=png&auto=webp&s=b3ab9be8f83badf0206adc982feda3a558d43e78
Basically, what the company is saying here is that by 2021, it will have classified as 2P reserves at least 23.7 million bbl from its Anasuria field and 20.5 million bbl from its North Sabah field – for total 2P reserves of 44.2 million bbl (we are ignoring the Australian VIC cluster as it is only estimated to reach first oil by 2022).
Furthermore, the company is stating that they have discovered (but not yet legally classified as “commercial”) a further 71 million bbl of oil from both the Anasuria and North Sabah fields, as well as the Marigold/Sunflower fields. If we include these 2C resources, the total potential recoverable oil volumes could exceed 100 million bbl.
In this report, we shall explore all valuation scenarios giving consideration to both 2P and 2C resources.
https://preview.redd.it/gk54qplf8br41.png?width=489&format=png&auto=webp&s=c905b7a6328432218b5b9dfd53cc9ef1390bd604
The company further targets a 2021 production rate of 20,000 bbl (LTM: 8,000 bbl), which includes 5,000 bbl from its Anasuria field (LTM: 2,500 bbl) and 7,000 bbl from its North Sabah field (LTM: 5,300 bbl).
This is a substantial increase in forecasted production from both existing and prospective oil fields. If it materializes, annual production rate could be as high as 7,300 mmbbl, and 2021 revenues (given FY20 USD/bbl of $60) could exceed RM 1.5 billion (FY20: RM 988 million).
However, this targeted forecast is quite a stretch from current production levels. Nevertheless, we shall consider all provided information in estimating a valuation for Hibiscus.
To understand Hibiscus’s oil production capacity and forecast its revenues and profits, we need to have a better appreciation of the performance of its two main cash-generating assets – the North Sabah field and the Anasuria field.

North Sabah oil field
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Hibiscus owns a 50% interest in the North Sabah field together with its partner Petronas, and has production rights over the field up to year 2040. The asset contains 4 oil fields, namely the St Joseph field, South Furious field, SF 30 field and Barton field.
For the sake of brevity, we shall not delve deep into the operational aspects of the fields or the contractual nature of its production sharing contract (PSC). We’ll just focus on the factors which relate to its financial performance. These are:
· Average uptime
· Total oil sold
· Average realized oil price
· Average OPEX per bbl
With regards to average uptime, we can see that the company maintains relative high facility availability, exceeding 90% uptime in all quarters of the LTM with exception of Jul-Sep 2019. The dip in average uptime was due to production enhancement projects and maintenance activities undertaken to improve the production capacity of the St Joseph and SF30 oil fields.
Hence, we can conclude that management has a good handle on operational performance. It also implies that there is little room for further improvement in production resulting from increased uptime.
As North Sabah is under a production sharing contract (PSC), there is a distinction between gross oil production and net oil production. The former relates to total oil drawn out of the ground, whereas the latter refers to Hibiscus’s share of oil production after taxes, royalties and expenses are accounted for. In this case, we want to pay attention to net oil production, not gross.
We can arrive at Hibiscus’s total oil sold for the last twelve months (LTM) by adding up the total oil sold for each of the last 4 quarters. Summing up the figures yields total oil sold for the LTM of approximately 2,075,305 bbl.
Then, we can arrive at an average realized oil price over the LTM by averaging the average realized oil price for the last 4 quarters, giving us an average realized oil price over the LTM of USD 68.57/bbl. We can do the same for average OPEX per bbl, giving us an average OPEX per bbl over the LTM of USD 13.23/bbl.
Thus, we can sum up the above financial performance of the North Sabah field with the following figures:
· Total oil sold: 2,075,305 bbl
· Average realized oil price: USD 68.57/bbl
· Average OPEX per bbl: USD 13.23/bbl

Anasuria oil field
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Doing the same exercise as above for the Anasuria field, we arrive at the following financial performance for the Anasuria field:
· Total oil sold: 1,073,304 bbl
· Average realized oil price: USD 63.57/bbl
· Average OPEX per bbl: USD 23.22/bbl
As gas production is relatively immaterial, and to be conservative, we shall only consider the crude oil production from the Anasuria field in forecasting revenues.

Valuation (Method 1)

Putting the figures from both oil fields together, we get the following data:
https://preview.redd.it/7y6064dq8br41.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=2a4120563a011cf61fc6090e1cd5932602599dc2
Given that we have determined LTM EBITDA of RM 632m, the next step would be to subtract ITDA (interest, tax, depreciation & amortization) from it to obtain estimated LTM Net Profit. Using FY2020’s ITDA of approximately RM 318m as a guideline, we arrive at an estimated LTM Net Profit of RM 314m (FY20: 230m). Given the current market capitalization of RM 714.7m, this implies a trailing LTM PE of 2.3x.
Performing a sensitivity analysis given different oil prices, we arrive at the following net profit table for the company under different oil price scenarios, assuming oil production rate and ITDA remain constant:
https://preview.redd.it/xixge5sr8br41.png?width=433&format=png&auto=webp&s=288a00f6e5088d01936f0217ae7798d2cfcf11f2
From the above exercise, it becomes apparent that Hibiscus has a breakeven oil price of about USD 41.8863/bbl, and has a lot of operating leverage given the exponential rate of increase in its Net Profit with each consequent increase in oil prices.
Considering that the oil production rate (EBITDA) is likely to increase faster than ITDA’s proportion to revenues (fixed costs), at an implied PE of 4.33x, it seems likely that an investment in Hibiscus will be profitable over the next 10 years (with the assumption that oil prices will revert to the mean in the long-term).

Valuation (Method 2)

Of course, there are a lot of assumptions behind the above method of valuation. Hence, it would be prudent to perform multiple methods of valuation and compare the figures to one another.
As opposed to the profit/loss assessment in Valuation (Method 1), another way of performing a valuation would be to estimate its balance sheet value, i.e. total revenues from 2P Reserves, and assign a reasonable margin to it.
https://preview.redd.it/o2eiss6u8br41.png?width=710&format=png&auto=webp&s=03960cce698d9cedb076f3d5f571b3c59d908fa8
From the above, we understand that Hibiscus’s 2P reserves from the North Sabah and Anasuria fields alone are approximately 44.2 mmbbl (we ignore contribution from Australia’s VIC cluster as it hasn’t been developed yet).
Doing a similar sensitivity analysis of different oil prices as above, we arrive at the following estimated total revenues and accumulated net profit:
https://preview.redd.it/h8hubrmw8br41.png?width=450&format=png&auto=webp&s=6d23f0f9c3dafda89e758b815072ba335467f33e
Let’s assume that the above average of RM 9.68 billion in total realizable revenues from current 2P reserves holds true. If we assign a conservative Net Profit margin of 15% (FY20: 23%; past 5 years average: 16%), we arrive at estimated accumulated Net Profit from 2P Reserves of RM 1.452 billion. Given the current market capitalization of RM 714 million, we might be able to say that the equity is worth about twice the current share price.
However, it is understandable that some readers might feel that the figures used in the above estimate (e.g. net profit margin of 15%) were randomly plucked from the sky. So how do we reconcile them with figures from the financial statements? Fortunately, there appears to be a way to do just that.
Intangible Assets
I refer you to a figure in the financial statements which provides a shortcut to the valuation of 2P Reserves. This is the carrying value of Intangible Assets on the Balance Sheet.
As of 2QFY21, that amount was RM 1,468,860,000 (i.e. RM 1.468 billion).
https://preview.redd.it/hse8ttb09br41.png?width=881&format=png&auto=webp&s=82e48b5961c905fe9273cb6346368de60202ebec
Quite coincidentally, one might observe that this figure is dangerously close to the estimated accumulated Net Profit from 2P Reserves of RM 1.452 billion we calculated earlier. But why would this amount matter at all?
To answer that, I refer you to the notes of the Annual Report FY20 (AR20). On page 148 of the AR20, we find the following two paragraphs:
E&E assets comprise of rights and concession and conventional studies. Following the acquisition of a concession right to explore a licensed area, the costs incurred such as geological and geophysical surveys, drilling, commercial appraisal costs and other directly attributable costs of exploration and appraisal including technical and administrative costs, are capitalised as conventional studies, presented as intangible assets.
E&E assets are assessed for impairment when facts and circumstances suggest that the carrying amount of an E&E asset may exceed its recoverable amount. The Group will allocate E&E assets to cash generating unit (“CGU”s or groups of CGUs for the purpose of assessing such assets for impairment. Each CGU or group of units to which an E&E asset is allocated will not be larger than an operating segment as disclosed in Note 39 to the financial statements.)
Hence, we can determine that firstly, the intangible asset value represents capitalized costs of acquisition of the oil fields, including technical exploration costs and costs of acquiring the relevant licenses. Secondly, an impairment review will be carried out when “the carrying amount of an E&E asset may exceed its recoverable amount”, with E&E assets being allocated to “cash generating units” (CGU) for the purposes of assessment.
On page 169 of the AR20, we find the following:
Carrying amounts of the Group’s intangible assets, oil and gas assets and FPSO are reviewed for possible impairment annually including any indicators of impairment. For the purpose of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the lowest level CGUs for which there is a separately identifiable cash flow available. These CGUs are based on operating areas, represented by the 2011 North Sabah EOR PSC (“North Sabah”, the Anasuria Cluster, the Marigold and Sunflower fields, the VIC/P57 exploration permit (“VIC/P57”) and the VIC/L31 production license (“VIC/L31”).)
So apparently, the CGUs that have been assigned refer to the respective oil producing fields, two of which include the North Sabah field and the Anasuria field. In order to perform the impairment review, estimates of future cash flow will be made by management to assess the “recoverable amount” (as described above), subject to assumptions and an appropriate discount rate.
Hence, what we can gather up to now is that management will estimate future recoverable cash flows from a CGU (i.e. the North Sabah and Anasuria oil fields), compare that to their carrying value, and perform an impairment if their future recoverable cash flows are less than their carrying value. In other words, if estimated accumulated profits from the North Sabah and Anasuria oil fields are less than their carrying value, an impairment is required.
So where do we find the carrying values for the North Sabah and Anasuria oil fields? Further down on page 184 in the AR20, we see the following:
Included in rights and concession are the carrying amounts of producing field licenses in the Anasuria Cluster amounting to RM668,211,518 (2018: RM687,664,530, producing field licenses in North Sabah amounting to RM471,031,008 (2018: RM414,333,116))
Hence, we can determine that the carrying values for the North Sabah and Anasuria oil fields are RM 471m and RM 668m respectively. But where do we find the future recoverable cash flows of the fields as estimated by management, and what are the assumptions used in that calculation?
Fortunately, we find just that on page 185:
17 INTANGIBLE ASSETS (CONTINUED)
(a Anasuria Cluster)
The Directors have concluded that there is no impairment indicator for Anasuria Cluster during the current financial year. In the previous financial year, due to uncertainties in crude oil prices, the Group has assessed the recoverable amount of the intangible assets, oil and gas assets and FPSO relating to the Anasuria Cluster. The recoverable amount is determined using the FVLCTS model based on discounted cash flows (“DCF” derived from the expected cash in/outflow pattern over the production lives.)
The key assumptions used to determine the recoverable amount for the Anasuria Cluster were as follows:
(i Discount rate of 10%;)
(ii Future cost inflation factor of 2% per annum;)
(iii Oil price forecast based on the oil price forward curve from independent parties; and,)
(iv Oil production profile based on the assessment by independent oil and gas reserve experts.)
Based on the assessments performed, the Directors concluded that the recoverable amount calculated based on the valuation model is higher than the carrying amount.
(b North Sabah)
The acquisition of the North Sabah assets was completed in the previous financial year. Details of the acquisition are as disclosed in Note 15 to the financial statements.
The Directors have concluded that there is no impairment indicator for North Sabah during the current financial year.
Here, we can see that the recoverable amount of the Anasuria field was estimated based on a DCF of expected future cash flows over the production life of the asset. The key assumptions used by management all seem appropriate, including a discount rate of 10% and oil price and oil production estimates based on independent assessment. From there, management concludes that the recoverable amount of the Anasuria field is higher than its carrying amount (i.e. no impairment required). Likewise, for the North Sabah field.
How do we interpret this? Basically, what management is saying is that given a 10% discount rate and independent oil price and oil production estimates, the accumulated profits (i.e. recoverable amount) from both the North Sabah and the Anasuria fields exceed their carrying amounts of RM 471m and RM 668m respectively.
In other words, according to management’s own estimates, the carrying value of the Intangible Assets of RM 1.468 billion approximates the accumulated Net Profit recoverable from 2P reserves.
To conclude Valuation (Method 2), we arrive at the following:

Our estimates Management estimates
Accumulated Net Profit from 2P Reserves RM 1.452 billion RM 1.468 billion

Financials

By now, we have established the basic economics of Hibiscus’s business, including its revenues (i.e. oil production and oil price scenarios), costs (OPEX, ITDA), profitability (breakeven, future earnings potential) and balance sheet value (2P reserves, valuation). Moving on, we want to gain a deeper understanding of the 3 statements to anticipate any blind spots and risks. We’ll refer to the financial statements of both the FY20 annual report and the 2Q21 quarterly report in this analysis.
For the sake of brevity, I’ll only point out those line items which need extra attention, and skip over the rest. Feel free to go through the financial statements on your own to gain a better familiarity of the business.
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Income Statement
First, we’ll start with the Income Statement on page 135 of the AR20. Revenues are straightforward, as we’ve discussed above. Cost of Sales and Administrative Expenses fall under the jurisdiction of OPEX, which we’ve also seen earlier. Other Expenses are mostly made up of Depreciation & Amortization of RM 115m.
Finance Costs are where things start to get tricky. Why does a company which carries no debt have such huge amounts of finance costs? The reason can be found in Note 8, where it is revealed that the bulk of finance costs relate to the unwinding of discount of provision for decommissioning costs of RM 25m (Note 32).
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This actually refers to the expected future costs of restoring the Anasuria and North Sabah fields to their original condition once the oil reserves have been depleted. Accounting standards require the company to provide for these decommissioning costs as they are estimable and probable. The way the decommissioning costs are accounted for is the same as an amortized loan, where the initial carrying value is recognized as a liability and the discount rate applied is reversed each year as an expense on the Income Statement. However, these expenses are largely non-cash in nature and do not necessitate a cash outflow every year (FY20: RM 69m).
Unwinding of discount on non-current other payables of RM 12m relate to contractual payments to the North Sabah sellers. We will discuss it later.
Taxation is another tricky subject, and is even more significant than Finance Costs at RM 161m. In gist, Hibiscus is subject to the 38% PITA (Petroleum Income Tax Act) under Malaysian jurisdiction, and the 30% Petroleum tax + 10% Supplementary tax under UK jurisdiction. Of the RM 161m, RM 41m of it relates to deferred tax which originates from the difference between tax treatment and accounting treatment on capitalized assets (accelerated depreciation vs straight-line depreciation). Nonetheless, what you should take away from this is that the tax expense is a tangible expense and material to breakeven analysis.
Fortunately, tax is a variable expense, and should not materially impact the cash flow of Hibiscus in today’s low oil price environment.
Note: Cash outflows for Tax Paid in FY20 was RM 97m, substantially below the RM 161m tax expense.
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Balance Sheet
The balance sheet of Hibiscus is unexciting; I’ll just bring your attention to those line items which need additional scrutiny. I’ll use the figures in the latest 2Q21 quarterly report (2Q21) and refer to the notes in AR20 for clarity.
We’ve already discussed Intangible Assets in the section above, so I won’t dwell on it again.
Moving on, the company has Equipment of RM 582m, largely relating to O&G assets (e.g. the Anasuria FPSO vessel and CAPEX incurred on production enhancement projects). Restricted cash and bank balances represent contractual obligations for decommissioning costs of the Anasuria Cluster, and are inaccessible for use in operations.
Inventories are relatively low, despite Hibiscus being an E&P company, so forex fluctuations on carrying value of inventories are relatively immaterial. Trade receivables largely relate to entitlements from Petronas and BP (both oil supermajors), and are hence quite safe from impairment. Other receivables, deposits and prepayments are significant as they relate to security deposits placed with sellers of the oil fields acquired; these should be ignored for cash flow purposes.
Note: Total cash and bank balances do not include approximately RM 105 m proceeds from the North Sabah December 2019 offtake (which was received in January 2020)
Cash and bank balances of RM 90m do not include RM 105m of proceeds from offtake received in 3Q21 (Jan 2020). Hence, the actual cash and bank balances as of 2Q21 approximate RM 200m.
Liabilities are a little more interesting. First, I’ll draw your attention to the significant Deferred tax liabilities of RM 457m. These largely relate to the amortization of CAPEX (i.e. Equipment and capitalized E&E expenses), which is given an accelerated depreciation treatment for tax purposes.
The way this works is that the government gives Hibiscus a favorable tax treatment on capital expenditures incurred via an accelerated depreciation schedule, so that the taxable income is less than usual. However, this leads to the taxable depreciation being utilized quicker than accounting depreciation, hence the tax payable merely deferred to a later period – when the tax depreciation runs out but accounting depreciation remains. Given the capital intensive nature of the business, it is understandable why Deferred tax liabilities are so large.
We’ve discussed Provision for decommissioning costs under the Finance Costs section earlier. They are also quite significant at RM 266m.
Notably, the Other Payables and Accruals are a hefty RM 431m. What do they relate to? Basically, they are contractual obligations to the sellers of the oil fields which are only payable upon oil prices reaching certain thresholds. Hence, while they are current in nature, they will only become payable when oil prices recover to previous highs, and are hence not an immediate cash outflow concern given today’s low oil prices.
Cash Flow Statement
There is nothing in the cash flow statement which warrants concern.
Notably, the company generated OCF of approximately RM 500m in FY20 and RM 116m in 2Q21. It further incurred RM 330m and RM 234m of CAPEX in FY20 and 2Q21 respectively, largely owing to production enhancement projects to increase the production rate of the Anasuria and North Sabah fields, which according to management estimates are accretive to ROI.
Tax paid was RM 97m in FY20 and RM 61m in 2Q21 (tax expense: RM 161m and RM 62m respectively).

Risks

There are a few obvious and not-so-obvious risks that one should be aware of before investing in Hibiscus. We shall not consider operational risks (e.g. uptime, OPEX) as they are outside the jurisdiction of the equity analyst. Instead, we shall focus on the financial and strategic risks largely outside the control of management. The main ones are:
· Oil prices remaining subdued for long periods of time
· Fluctuation of exchange rates
· Customer concentration risk
· 2P Reserves being less than estimated
· Significant current and non-current liabilities
· Potential issuance of equity
Oil prices remaining subdued
Of topmost concern in the minds of most analysts is whether Hibiscus has the wherewithal to sustain itself through this period of low oil prices (sub-$30). A quick and dirty estimate of annual cash outflow (i.e. burn rate) assuming a $20 oil world and historical production rates is between RM 50m-70m per year, which considering the RM 200m cash balance implies about 3-4 years of sustainability before the company runs out of cash and has to rely on external assistance for financing.
Table 1: Hibiscus EBITDA at different oil price and exchange rates
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The above table shows different EBITDA scenarios (RM ‘m) given different oil prices (left column) and USD:MYR exchange rates (top row). Currently, oil prices are $27 and USD:MYR is 1:4.36.
Given conservative assumptions of average OPEX/bbl of $20 (current: $15), we can safely say that the company will be loss-making as long as oil remains at $20 or below (red). However, we can see that once oil prices hit $25, the company can tank the lower-end estimate of the annual burn rate of RM 50m (orange), while at RM $27 it can sufficiently muddle through the higher-end estimate of the annual burn rate of RM 70m (green).
Hence, we can assume that as long as the average oil price over the next 3-4 years remains above $25, Hibiscus should come out of this fine without the need for any external financing.
Customer Concentration Risk
With regards to customer concentration risk, there is not much the analyst or investor can do except to accept the risk. Fortunately, 80% of revenues can be attributed to two oil supermajors (Petronas and BP), hence the risk of default on contractual obligations and trade receivables seems to be quite diminished.
2P Reserves being less than estimated
2P Reserves being less than estimated is another risk that one should keep in mind. Fortunately, the current market cap is merely RM 714m – at half of estimated recoverable amounts of RM 1.468 billion – so there’s a decent margin of safety. In addition, there are other mitigating factors which shall be discussed in the next section (‘Opportunities’).
Significant non-current and current liabilities
The significant non-current and current liabilities have been addressed in the previous section. It has been determined that they pose no threat to immediate cash flow due to them being long-term in nature (e.g. decommissioning costs, deferred tax, etc). Hence, for the purpose of assessing going concern, their amounts should not be a cause for concern.
Potential issuance of equity
Finally, we come to the possibility of external financing being required in this low oil price environment. While the company should last 3-4 years on existing cash reserves, there is always the risk of other black swan events materializing (e.g. coronavirus) or simply oil prices remaining muted for longer than 4 years.
Furthermore, management has hinted that they wish to acquire new oil assets at presently depressed prices to increase daily production rate to a targeted 20,000 bbl by end-2021. They have room to acquire debt, but they may also wish to issue equity for this purpose. Hence, the possibility of dilution to existing shareholders cannot be entirely ruled out.
However, given management’s historical track record of prioritizing ROI and optimal capital allocation, and in consideration of the fact that the MD owns 10% of outstanding shares, there is some assurance that any potential acquisitions will be accretive to EPS and therefore valuations.

Opportunities

As with the existence of risk, the presence of material opportunities also looms over the company. Some of them are discussed below:
· Increased Daily Oil Production Rate
· Inclusion of 2C Resources
· Future oil prices exceeding $50 and effects from coronavirus dissipating
Increased Daily Oil Production Rate
The first and most obvious opportunity is the potential for increased production rate. We’ve seen in the last quarter (2Q21) that the North Sabah field increased its daily production rate by approximately 20% as a result of production enhancement projects (infill drilling), lowering OPEX/bbl as a result. To vastly oversimplify, infill drilling is the process of maximizing well density by drilling in the spaces between existing wells to improve oil production.
The same improvements are being undertaken at the Anasuria field via infill drilling, subsea debottlenecking, water injection and sidetracking of existing wells. Without boring you with industry jargon, this basically means future production rate is likely to improve going forward.
By how much can the oil production rate be improved by? Management estimates in their analyst presentation that enhancements in the Anasuria field will be able to yield 5,000 bbl/day by 2021 (current: 2,500 bbl/day).
Similarly, improvements in the North Sabah field is expected to yield 7,000 bbl/day by 2021 (current: 5,300 bbl/day).
This implies a total 2021 expected daily production rate from the two fields alone of 12,000 bbl/day (current: 8,000 bbl/day). That’s a 50% increase in yields which we haven’t factored into our valuation yet.
Furthermore, we haven’t considered any production from existing 2C resources (e.g. Marigold/Sunflower) or any potential acquisitions which may occur in the future. By management estimates, this can potentially increase production by another 8,000 bbl/day, bringing total production to 20,000 bbl/day.
While this seems like a stretch of the imagination, it pays to keep them in mind when forecasting future revenues and valuations.
Just to play around with the numbers, I’ve come up with a sensitivity analysis of possible annual EBITDA at different oil prices and daily oil production rates:
Table 2: Hibiscus EBITDA at different oil price and daily oil production rates
https://preview.redd.it/jnpfhr5n9br41.png?width=814&format=png&auto=webp&s=bbe4b512bc17f576d87529651140cc74cde3d159
The left column represents different oil prices while the top row represents different daily oil production rates.
The green column represents EBITDA at current daily production rate of 8,000 bbl/day; the orange column represents EBITDA at targeted daily production rate of 12,000 bbl/day; while the purple column represents EBITDA at maximum daily production rate of 20,000 bbl/day.
Even conservatively assuming increased estimated annual ITDA of RM 500m (FY20: RM 318m), and long-term average oil prices of $50 (FY20: $60), the estimated Net Profit and P/E ratio is potentially lucrative at daily oil production rates of 12,000 bbl/day and above.
2C Resources
Since we’re on the topic of improved daily oil production rate, it bears to pay in mind the relatively enormous potential from Hibiscus’s 2C Resources. North Sabah’s 2C Resources alone exceed 30 mmbbl; while those from the yet undiagnosed Marigold/Sunflower fields also reach 30 mmbbl. Altogether, 2C Resources exceed 70 mmbbl, which dwarfs the 44 mmbbl of 2P Reserves we have considered up to this point in our valuation estimates.
To refresh your memory, 2C Resources represents oil volumes which have been discovered but are not yet classified as “commercial”. This means that there is reasonable certainty of the oil being recoverable, as opposed to simply being in the very early stages of exploration. So, to be conservative, we will imagine that only 50% of 2C Resources are eligible for reclassification to 2P reserves, i.e. 35 mmbbl of oil.
https://preview.redd.it/mto11iz7abr41.png?width=375&format=png&auto=webp&s=e9028ab0816b3d3e25067447f2c70acd3ebfc41a
This additional 35 mmbbl of oil represents an 80% increase to existing 2P reserves. Assuming the daily oil production rate increases similarly by 80%, we will arrive at 14,400 bbl/day of oil production. According to Table 2 above, this would yield an EBITDA of roughly RM 630m assuming $50 oil.
Comparing that estimated EBITDA to FY20’s actual EBITDA:
FY20 FY21 (incl. 2C) Difference
Daily oil production (bbl/day) 8,626 14,400 +66%
Average oil price (USD/bbl) $68.57 $50 -27%
Average OPEX/bbl (USD) $16.64 $20 +20%
EBITDA (RM ‘m) 632 630 -
Hence, even conservatively assuming lower oil prices and higher OPEX/bbl (which should decrease in the presence of higher oil volumes) than last year, we get approximately the same EBITDA as FY20.
For the sake of completeness, let’s assume that Hibiscus issues twice the no. of existing shares over the next 10 years, effectively diluting shareholders by 50%. Even without accounting for the possibility of the acquisition of new oil fields, at the current market capitalization of RM 714m, the prospective P/E would be about 10x. Not too shabby.
Future oil prices exceeding $50 and effects from coronavirus dissipating
Hibiscus shares have recently been hit by a one-two punch from oil prices cratering from $60 to $30, as a result of both the Saudi-Russian dispute and depressed demand for oil due to coronavirus. This has massively increased supply and at the same time hugely depressed demand for oil (due to the globally coordinated lockdowns being implemented).
Given a long enough timeframe, I fully expect OPEC+ to come to an agreement and the economic effects from the coronavirus to dissipate, allowing oil prices to rebound. As we equity investors are aware, oil prices are cyclical and are bound to recover over the next 10 years.
When it does, valuations of O&G stocks (including Hibiscus’s) are likely to improve as investors overshoot expectations and begin to forecast higher oil prices into perpetuity, as they always tend to do in good times. When that time arrives, Hibiscus’s valuations are likely to become overoptimistic as all O&G stocks tend to do during oil upcycles, resulting in valuations far exceeding reasonable estimates of future earnings. If you can hold the shares up until then, it’s likely you will make much more on your investment than what we’ve been estimating.

Conclusion

Wrapping up what we’ve discussed so far, we can conclude that Hibiscus’s market capitalization of RM 714m far undershoots reasonable estimates of fair value even under conservative assumptions of recoverable oil volumes and long-term average oil prices. As a value investor, I hesitate to assign a target share price, but it’s safe to say that this stock is worth at least RM 1.00 (current: RM 0.45). Risk is relatively contained and the upside far exceeds the downside. While I have no opinion on the short-term trajectory of oil prices, I can safely recommend this stock as a long-term Buy based on fundamental research.
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Why you should invest in GOLD Token as your stable coin

Why you should invest in GOLD Token as your stable coin
Gold has been in life for many years even earlier than the invention of cash.It has been a viable means of wealth preservation for lots of years .The Stability of Gold and its long term buying electricity is some distance superior than any elegance of foreign money ever existed within the records. Today , i could be focusing my topic of discussion on a Digital Gold Project.
Digital Gold is a blockchain powered platform created with the aim of consolidating the entire Goal market through Blockchain . The Sole aim is consolidating Gold which has been in existing for hundreds of years and served as credible approach of fee.

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The tokenization of Gold on Ethereum stage, an ERC-20 primarily based token, has added a fantastic open door for monetary professionals, who're searching out a sincere approach to purchase gold bullion bars and stable Digital sources.
This type of hypothesis is so proven in light of the reality that the mixture sum of Gold tokens available for use, just as that acquired through humans, can be checked utilising Ethereum blockchain, which is continuously equal to the whole estimation of bodily Gold bullion put away in a established vault.
This is comfortable in view that it's far in association with the primary vault stockpiling enterprise referred to as Bullionstar.

The relative stability in the rate of gold and the way it may serve the cryptocurrency market

Gold purchases nowa days for the sake of investing. One of the predominant functions of gold within the forex marketplace is to function a store of wealth asides being actively traded. This can easily be seen through the appreciation inside the value of gold on every occasion the power of the quote forex weakens as is the case with america dollar.
This save of wealth and relative price stability could without problems serve the crypto currency market which is susceptible to high volatility in fees.
A brief assessment ought to easily be proven the use of the charge fluctuation of Bitcoin(BTC) and Gold within the beyond months. Within this era, BTC has experienced fee depreciation of over $four 000 whilst gold has experienced most effective mild depreciation amid fluctuation of approximately $62.

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Why you should buy GOLD
GOLD provides holders with the security of buying gold whilst making sure that tokens do now not serve as simply a store of fee, not like gold. GOLD holders can without difficulty benefit from the charge balance, lengthy-time period appreciation inside the value of gold, as well as enjoy the use of the token for daily fees and purchases. Some of the major advantages of using GOLD consist of:
  • Seamless, anonymous, and immediate buy of gold
Gone are the days of lengthy methods and constant office work just to purchase gold. Using cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ether, investors can without problems and right away purchase gold through GOLD. This gets rid of unnecessary 0.33-parties while making gold ownership clean and nameless.
  • Secure garage of gold
Any investor looking to put money into gold has to have suitable storage in vicinity for you to ensure its protection. GOLD token holders need now not fear about including the physical gold is securely saved inside the DIGITAL GOLD enterprise’s vault, making sure asset safety always.
  • Access to fraud-free international markets
The gold market is a global one with numerous governments protecting gold in its reserves. The gold market which is predominantly reachable to massive capital people and institutions is made easily on hand to all cadres of investors thru GOLD.
GOLD also can be used to hedge towards diverse cryptocurrencies, presenting capital security inside the case of excessive volatility cryptocurrency market situations because of its price balance.

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Conclusion
Sometimes, when a hassle persists, there are generally methods and lots better methods to deal with them, however figuring out these way seems to be some other problem itself. Digital Gold, has via its wealth of knowledge and well astute crew, been capable of come up with a super idea, this is able to carry a long-lasting answer, now not just to the crypto sphere, but additionally to people who do not have the expertise about cryptocurrency and the hallmark of it's far to the arena in entirety.

The gold token is alongside these traces exactly what's required inside the occasion which you want to have a regular aid. Nonetheless, if there is any preferred phrase over at ease, I will put it to use for Gold token. On the off risk that there may be some other thing superior to being an extended haul prospect, I will affirm Gold token to be in an awful lot better category. The gold token is the factor that you need, don't skip up a exceptional possibility.
For more information; do visit:
Website: https://gold.storage/
Whitepaper: https://gold.storage/wp.pdf
Telegram: https://t.me/digitalgoldcoin
Author:
IVEXO
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=1942787
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DIGITAL GOLD TOKEN, THE BASIC STABLE COIN FOR INVESTORS

DIGITAL GOLD TOKEN, THE BASIC STABLE COIN FOR INVESTORS
Introduction

Indeed, even rich individuals nevertheless need ventures to shield their benefits from falling an incentive because of enlargement.
The importance of contributing will be higher for those whose lives depend upon a month to month compensation in particular. It is incautious to allow the belongings claimed just be inserted in close to home storage and now not to be searched for but an awful lot as could reasonably be predicted to shield the assets from enlargement.

Since with not anything to do with riches, at that point there's a shrinkage of the assets. One great develop to protect their property from dangers — future dangers and to enhance the fate of existence is a hypothesis. Speculations are the situation of cash or property with expectancies of obtaining extra or sure blessings at the coins.

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The speculation law applies that the better the advantage offered then the higher the risk that buyers ought to endure. Investors should have continued misfortunes a good deal past what that might lose all his capital. Basic for the investor to decide his/her objective in contributing with the goal that it can select what sort of speculation to select.

Numerous styles of ventures may be utilized, but in this newsletter, the author talks about the hypothesis that the bigger element within the usage of buyers is gold. Gold is one of the maximum commonly utilized undertaking gadgets within the network.
This is because of the estimation of gold that is constantly expanding from the hour of your citizenship. Despite the truth that the expansion in esteem does not will in popular be sizable, gold is one of the long haul hypothesis devices worth considering.
Gold purchasing and promoting bureaucracy are easy whilst the network goes to provide the gold just want to attach verification of procurement with the easy method of deciding on gold an astounding choice for people to make contributions.

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Talking about gold speculation, but does the peruser recognize whether gold mission presently may be in a complicated way within the feeling of unnecessary storing gold in the residence? This time the writer will talk about ventures that are as but diagnosed with gold contributing.

With the developing time, contributing gold presently ought now not want to spare it straightforwardly, currently you'll already be capable of make a contribution gold via Cryptocurrency this is at the fee of gold on the planet promote it, present a project that Between Cryptocurrency and gold.

The undertaking is referred to as Digital Gold, at that point what's Digital Gold?
Digital Gold is a Crypto currency coin that intends to make it is simpler for buyers to place sources into gold without considering sparing their gold wherein, in light of the reality that Digital Gold gives comfy storage, Digital Gold itself Using the Ethereum arrange as their blockchain set up, the Ethereum organize is widely recognized for its velocity and modest on the way to encourage buyers, Digital Gold Coin can likewise be called with GOLD at the Ethereum arrange.

For what motive wouldn't it be a good concept so one can decide to position assets into Digital Gold?

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What we understand is superior gold is similar to the physical gold we as of now have, but numerous points of interest inside the event which you put sources into Digital Gold, what are the benefits?

Extremely protected
On the off hazard that the per user has physical gold, the per user will most possibly feel befuddled about storing it, given that it's far harassed misplaced or in take. In any case, if the per user places sources into Digital Gold, the per user does not ought to strain over the gold that per users have, in view of the gold that per users Will be stayed with in a included safe.

Obscurity
Putting resources into Digital Gold per users just want to have a wallet cryptographic cash may be gotten on transportable or on a PC, and no person will recognize whether the per user has gold, in light of the fact that the idea of the Ethereum set up is very Anonymity, per users just Have a pockets deal with, no actual name or KYC confirmation is required to buy or sell Digital Gold.

Simple and easy
While having a physical gold per user might be hard to sell it, because it needs to release the car, and can't whenever sell it, in Digital Gold per users can buy or sell GOLD on every occasion and anywhere simply utilizing hand-held Smartphone Users, so there is no ought to be hard to put sources into Digital Gold.

Transparent
Its straightforwardness truly knows blockchain in every transaction, and in blockchain, innovation has the upside of being modest and short.

Stable
Try now not to befuddle, Digital Gold Token has a comparable charge as physical gold when all is said in carried out, 1 Token = 1 Gram gold with immaculateness charge 99.Ninety nine%, and one-of-a-kind advantages are at the entire GOLD tokens in the reinforcement by using unadulterated gold this is stored within the business enterprise distribution middle.

Every token is made by means of an Ethereum keen settlement, and the sum will constantly compare to the amount of gold stored inside the organization's stockroom.

Where might i be capable of buy and sell Digital (GOLD)?
Advanced Gold has simply been rundown in a few exchanges, and Digital Gold itself may be exchanged or bought within the site of the accompanying:

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DIGITAL GOLD'S OFFICIAL MARKETPLACE

Digital Gold's true commercial center is an change this is spoken through Digital Gold on its legit website. You can go to it by way of the connection below:

CRYPTEX
A programmed management with which you could absolutely and rapidly change virtual forms of cash for electronic monetary paperwork and back with out enlisting. Purchasing and selling bitcoin and distinctive digital kinds of cash unbounded and confinements.
We work with money in eleven countries, financial institution playing cards, and electronic installments.

BITFOREX
One of the primary and most in style exchanges with a tremendous many dealers from all areas of the sector.
BitForex is an exceptionally first rate entire platform for trading and a authentic one-prevent advanced aid management platform.

For further information, do visit
Official Website : https://gold.storage/
White paper: https://gold.storage/wp.pdf
Telegram: https://t.me/digitalgoldcoin
Twitter: https://twitter.com/gold_erc20

Author: cytpoway121 Link: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2202709
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Digital Gold: Evolving the Gold Market

Digital Gold: Evolving the Gold Market

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Introduction
Gold is an important normal assets providing for all humankind by method for God Himself, it draws potential investors much like a magnet does draws. Do you comprehend why ? Since anyplace Gold is-individuals go toward that course looking for financial harmony and future ability benefits that must be found in gold.
At the point when we look at the stock marketplace thing; we can see eagerly that gold has kept up a strong charge during that time and has certain a ton of investors as a helpful shop of riches and money for individuals.
By and large, most extreme purchasers buy the gold prospects to differentiate danger. In any case, gold has demonstrated itself to be solid predictable and a safe for all. Contrasting this concurrent with crypto forex is the reason the Digital Gold platform is here.
Digital Gold platform is expecting to move the more normal qualities of gold into the cryptographic money worldwide along these lines making a solid, solid, secure, verified and predictable stable coin for the digital currency worldwide to appreciate and enjoy.
In all nutshell; I will advise us nowadays the reason why the virtual gold platform stable coin is higher than the present Stable coins.
Existent solid coins blessing nowadays are normally asset supported digital forms of money on the front; and even as a couple are unified to a definite vault; some Steady coins are decentralized. Unified stable coin are helpless against hack or likely overlap up; while Decentralized are supported either through fiat or digital currency or with the guide of sources that are more than precious including gold, silver, etc
For what reason is Digital Gold Stable coins the quality?
The digital gold solid coin; with ticker GOLD is a decentralized stable coin supported by method for the Gold precious metallic; which ensures that the expense of the gold steel is equivalent to the expense of the gold token; this ensures the gold token :
The gold token worth is consistent constantly and moreover really redeemable anytime you need; it is additionally consistently sought after.
The gold token is financed through 9200 bullion Gold vault which rises to 9200 gold tokens. I.E 9200 Gold in vault = 9200 gold tokens.
**N.B: The Gold Platform Group gave 9200 tokens in light of the fact that legitimate now The Gold vault shops 9200 grams of gold. 1 gram of gold = 1 gold token.
After investors purchase the limit of the existent 7200 tokens, the digital gold association will purchase a fresh out of the box new part of metal gold and put it inside the vault carport. From that point forward, the team will transfer GOLD tokens to more markets.
With such highlights above; I can tell you that gold token stable coin is the way ahead in safeguarding our accounts secure; verified, straightforward and totally supported by methods for 7,200 gold vault.
I really have had a non-open run over with the platform and it's the charming stablecoin I have happened upon.
As upon the arrival of distributing this content,
The gold token is buyable and sellable at the gold site, https://gold.storage.
Moreover, you can change the gold token on Cryptex website. Visit https://cryptex.exchange
Also you can trade Digital Gold to at https://www.bitforex.com/en/spot/gold_btc
https://livecoin.net/en/trading/GOLD_BTC
https://www.catex.io/trading/GOLD/BTC
Do you wish to know more information, quickly visit:
Website: https://gold.storage/
Whitepaper: https://gold.storage/wp.pdf
Bitcointalk ANN: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5161544
Telegram: https://t.me/digitalgoldcoin
Twitter : https://twitter.com/gold_erc20
Bitcointalk name: Raymzopai
Bitcointalk Link: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2129537;sa=summary
submitted by adiaha11 to Crypto_Investments [link] [comments]

Acute Growth of Algorithm Trading Market Opportunity Assessments 2019-2023

Acute Growth of Algorithm Trading Market Opportunity Assessments 2019-2023
Algorithm Trading Market
Research report comes up with the size of the global Algorithm Trading Market for the base year 2019 and the forecast between 2019 and 2023. Market value has been estimated considering the application and regional segments, market share, and size, while the forecast for each product type and application segment has been provided for the global and local markets.
The Algorithm Trading report offers detailed profiles of the key players to bring out a clear view of the competitive landscape of the Algorithm Trading Outlook. It also comprehends market new product analysis, financial overview, strategies and marketing trends.
Major Manufacturer Detail: Thomson Reuters, 63 moons, InfoReach, Argo SE, MetaQuotes Software, Automated Trading SoftTech, Tethys, Trading Technologies, Tata Consulting Services, Vela, Virtu Financial, Symphony Fintech, Kuberre Systems, iRageCapital, QuantCore Capital Management
Get a Free PDF Sample Copy! Click Here: https://www.acquiremarketresearch.com/sample-request/205792/
The report reckons a complete view of the world Algorithm Trading market by classifying it in terms of application and region. These segments are examined by current and future trends. Regional segmentation incorporates current and future demand for them in North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, and the Middle East. The report collectively covers specific application segments of the market in each region.
Types of Algorithm Trading covered are: Forex Algorithm Trading, Stock Algorithm Trading, Fund Algorithm Trading, Bond Algorithm Trading, Cryptographic Algorithm Trading
Applications of Algorithm Trading covered are: large Enterprise, SME
Use Corporate ID to avail Discount on this Algorithm Trading Market Report report: https://www.acquiremarketresearch.com/discount-request/205792/
Regional Analysis For Algorithm Trading Market
North America (The United States, Canada, and Mexico) Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia, and Italy) Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, and Southeast Asia) South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, etc.) The Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa)
Table of Contents:
Study Coverage: It includes key manufacturers covered, key market segments, the scope of products offered in the global Algorithm Trading market, years considered, and study objectives. Additionally, it touches the segmentation study provided in the report on the basis of the type of product and application. Executive summary: It gives a summary of key studies, market growth rate, competitive landscape, market drivers, trends, and issues, and macroscopic indicators. Production by Region: Here, the report provides information related to import and export, production, revenue, and key players of all regional markets studied. Profile of Manufacturers: Each player profiled in this section is studied on the basis of SWOT analysis, their products, production, value, capacity, and other vital factors.
Reasons to buy:
• In-depth analysis of the market on the global and regional level. • Major changes in market dynamics and competitive landscape. • Segmentation on the basis of type, application, geography, and others. • Historical and future market research in terms of size, share, growth, volume & sales. • Major changes and assessment in market dynamics & developments. • Industry size & share analysis with industry growth and trends. • Emerging key segments and regions. • Key business strategies by major market players and their key methods. • The research report covers size, share, trends and growth analysis of the Algorithm Trading Market on the global and regional level.
Get Full Report Description, TOC, Table of Figures, Chart, etc. @ https://www.acquiremarketresearch.com/industry-reports/algorithm-trading-market/205792/
In conclusion, the Algorithm Trading Market report is a reliable source for accessing the Market data that will exponentially accelerate your business. The report provides the principle locale, economic scenarios with the item value, benefit, supply, limit, generation, request, Market development rate, and figure and so on. Besides, the report presents a new task SWOT analysis, speculation attainability investigation, and venture return investigation.
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XCARD

I think XCARD is a unique, modern cryptocurrency wallet that will include not only support for cryptocurrency assets, but also wide interaction with fiat money. In addition to the digital wallet, credit cards will be present. This will allow you to carry out any financial operations and transactions with cryptocurrencies in real time without any restrictions. The company’s goal is to facilitate interaction with cryptocurrencies to the same extent as you used to use fiat funds. And all this will happen regardless of your level of knowledge and advancement in the field of cryptocurrencies. XCARD is a full-cycle ecosystem that consists of a wallet, card, exchange with the ability to API interface.
All this together creates an instant payment platform that essentially combines cryptocurrency and fiat money and the most convenient payment methods such as cards, bank transfers, transfers from one wallet to another and many other popular functions. As you understand the buyer and seller can now independently choose any currency that they want to use, while instant conversion takes place in any direction. In addition, XCARD provides the best transaction execution speed and the lowest commission on the market. Cooperation with well-known banking systems, such as VISA, allows users to make profitable transfers around the world. In addition, XCARD is a licensed platform located in the jurisdictions of Lithuania and Estonia.
For a more global application and implementation of digital assets, it is necessary to create a system that simultaneously allows the use of both traditional and digital currencies, this task is engaged in a project called XCARD.
The idea for the XCARD is the company Mobilum and the team consists of members with more than twenty years of experience in the area of payment solutions and participated in the creation of the first electronic purse, implemented a convenient application for Forex, trading platforms, exchanges, so we can confidently say that they are familiar with the shortcomings of the existing financial system.
XCARD is a convenient credit card with the functions of buying and selling digital assets for traditional Fiat money and vice versa in real time without delays, making payments for goods and services of partner companies in a couple of clicks. Users ' funds are securely stored in cold wallets and are not available to a centralized service.
Such a system simplifies the secure exchange of fiat to digital tokens to make transactions between users by means of smart contracts and are able to increase their liquidity several times, XCARD plans to accommodate multiple security tokens, irreplaceable (collectibles, gaming accessories), and the number will reach 200 different cryptocurrencies.
Undoubtedly, in order to realize its objectives, the founders XCard developed your own utilities marker ERC20 standards called – MBM. As you may have guessed, its presence will allow the entire developed ecosystem to perform various operations both inside the online system and outside it, making various unlimited transactions around the world. Only to realize the potential XCard will be allocated 640 million MBM coins with the following distribution of profits after the public sales:
XCARD has entered into a partnership with such a well-known company as Visa and is going to hold the initial placement of MBM tokens in the fourth quarter of 2019. The project is actively developing and in their social media accounts you can follow new companies that join it and are ready to integrate into their ecosystem.
#XCARD #mbmtoken #Blockchain #Crypto #Payments #BTC #fintech #cryptowallet #cardpayments http://xcard.io/
submitted by DenisGra to altcoin_news [link] [comments]

Börser (BOR) ICO Details

Börser (BOR) ICO Details

https://preview.redd.it/315d6q0rnbw21.png?width=785&format=png&auto=webp&s=0d336d7333dc06e10aa256b675dac4efc172bb33
Cryptocurrencies are on the rise, but they are often surrounded by contradictions. The main problem is that most cryptocurrencies such as bitcoins are not supported by real shares. We Börser seek to change it. Börser is a cryptocurrency supported by the shares of Börser SA, our holding company, which offers you an excellent opportunity to participate in three different projects. Börser SA owns shares in three companies - Mi Wall Street, which specializes in providing high-quality financial services previously reserved for large corporations, a small investor, CrowdingFunds, a blockchain-based crowdfunding platform for investors around the world, and X-Change, which allows customers to easily convert börser cryptocurrency into Fiat currency for a very low fee.
Problem From design to liquidation and everything in between. Starting capital Implementing a brilliant business idea is only the first step on the road to success: you need start-up capital to make your vision a reality. Most often, start-up companies fail because they simply can not meet the right investor in time and attract start-up capital. Moreover, most crowdfunding platforms Fund only those projects that are within the platform's jurisdiction, which creates additional financial obstacles for entrepreneurs. Services for small investors To succeed in what they do, investors must have access to a range of financial services. The problem is that most of them, including managed accounts, Forex and Stock brokerage accounts, as well as accurate trading signals, are only for wealthy investors. Money transfer services The pursuit of better job prospects is only human nature, but as more and more people go to work abroad, a global problem has arisen: remittances. Cryptocurrency and transmission technology of the block chain and create new opportunities for the transformation and modernization of methods of transmitting remittances across borders, but it is often too expensive for most people. Crypto-viewing Over the past few years, the world has witnessed a huge cryptocurrency boom, but the cryptocurrency market remains extremely unstable and unstable. This is due to the very concept of cryptocurrency, which is influenced even by such global "leaders" as bitcoins: cryptocurrencies simply do not reflect real assets. Moreover, the majority of cryptocurrencies are victims of the same flaw: the speed of transactions. Most systems can only process a few transactions per second, and security is often still lacking.
Börser Solutions
Borser hopes to provide the following set of unique features which will offer the vast range of opportunities for the investors and entrepreneurs, alike.
  • Crowdfunding Platform
Users get to fund and embrace upcoming ICOs depending on their respective jurisdictions.
  • MI Wall Street
Small-time investors can access the platform investment hub with the addition of financial services to minimize the costs.
  • X-Change
The X-change platform will help address the issue of worldwide remittances by offering a seamless, accurate and cost-effective portal for the services.
  • Holding Company
As part of their financial solutions, Borsers will create a holding company that provides a comprehensive portal for all the financial markets.
Should You Choose Borser?
  • Borser employs a business model that is unique in the following ways.
  • The cryptocurrency is among the first regarding tokens backed up by the shares of a holding company
  • The holding company is also the first with its cryptocurrency
  • The companies under the holding entity will provide the comprehensive financial solutions for the financial markets, start-ups, traders and every other service available
  • A low-cost remittances service that will offer the necessary speed and security

Börser ICO Details

Parameters Of The ICO

  • Start- Jan 1, 2019
  • End- Mar 31, 2019
  • Ticker Symbol- BOR
  • Platform- Ethereum
  • Accepts- Fiat, cryptocurrency
  • Price- 1 BOR= 1USD( $0.5- Private Sale, $0.8- Pre Sale)
  • Token supply- 100,000,000
  • Soft Cap- $5,000,000
  • Hard Cap- $32,000,000
Website: https://borser.c
Whitepaper: https://borser.cdocs/whitepaper.pdf
Bounty0x ID: ecamli
submitted by ecamli to BountyICO [link] [comments]

WolfpackBOT - The world's fastest and most secure trading bot

WolfpackBOT - The world's fastest and most secure trading bot

https://preview.redd.it/b2ffej55zfd21.png?width=768&format=png&auto=webp&s=196c912c5d4250be54d647648613545f74faec7d

INTRODUCTION

According to wikipedia, Blockchain is originally known as bloc chain, It is a growing list of records known as blocks which is linked using cryptography, each of these blocks contain a cryptographic hash of the initial block, a transaction data and a time stamp.
Since its emergence in the year 2008, when Nakamoto satoshi discovered and introduced bitcoin, there has been serious efforts to integrate the blockchain technology into several aspects of various process of global business , The blockchain technology has been described as having the potential to disrupt many industries with immutability, low-cost transaction, and enhanced maximum security. So many other blockchain implementations have been deployed and developed with unique features designed to specific use-cases.
The blockchain technology has made possible to issue assets through a distributed ledger framework. With cryptocurrency tokens, Assets can be given economic value in order to validate and initiate transactional processes.

ADVANTAGES OF BLOCKCHAIN:

  1. Decentralised payment processing,
  2. Creating an immutable system of recording,
  3. Reducing Cost of Transaction and
  4. Enhanced Security.
  5. Now that we have reminded ourselves of what blockchain technology is, let’s look into the subject matter.

ABOUT WolfpackBOT

WolfpackBOT is a highly advanced cryptocurrency trading software that allows for the execution of trades at lightning speed using proprietary trading algorithms, proprietary “Werewolf” Trading Analysis configurations, or user customized settings based on personal trading style. WolfpackBOT also allows for simultaneous trading access to all compatible cryptocurrency exchanges that are available to the bot, and all trading pairs with the WerewolfBOT subscription package.
WolfpackBOT is introducing an industry first, a beautiful automated cryptocurrency trading console: The WolfBOX. This efficient and sleek piece of hardware will conveniently allow for the full utilization of a bot subscription without the need for a VPS or dedicated computer. The WolfBOX will also include a built-in secure Hardware Wallet and RFID card reader to optimize ease-of-use and functionality.
WolfpackBOT trading software is enabled with limit, market, and “Wolf Trade” orders on all trading candles, including one-minute candles, with the widest array of technical trading indicators available on the market. WolfpackBOT's proprietary “Wolf Trade” orders provide superior market sell orders with a bite! WolfpackBOT is the only trading bot to feature live price scanning on your positions and also handles partial fills with ease, meaning you don’t miss out on orders. WolfpackBOT is incredibly fast and can fulfill up to 10,000 trades per day depending on market conditions and subscription package.
WolfpackBOT allows simultaneous trading access to all cryptocurrency exchanges that are available to the bot, and all trading pairs through the WerewolfBOT subscription plan. Not only do inferior bots allow limited access to one exchange and one trading pair per bot, they also store your API keys remotely on servers which are potentially susceptible to hacks and pump and dump attacks. User security and API key protection holds a high priority within the WolfpackBOT framework which is why it is the only trading bot that gives users full control with local management of their API keys.
Masternode and Proof of Work X11 Blockchain
Wolfcoin Blockchain with X11 Proof of Work Mining and Masternode Reward Systems The Wolfcoin blockchain and network are both designed and engineered to ensure store of value, transactional speed and security, and fungibility. The main goal of the Wolfcoin blockchain is to facilitate fast and secure transactions with a governance that helps sustain the network for the benefit of all users. The Wolfcoin blockchain is a two-tier network comprised of a Proof of Work (PoW) consensus mechanism powered by miners and a Proof of Service (PoSe) system powered by masternodes.
The Wolfcoin blockchain is secured through Proof of Work (PoW) in which miners attempt to solve difficult problems with specialized computers. When a problem is solved, the miner receives the right to add a new block to the blockchain. If the problem was solved correctly, the miner is rewarded once the block is added.
The second tier, which is powered by masternodes, enables Wolfcoin to facilitate private and instant transactions with Private Send and Instant Send. Masternodes are also rewarded when miners discover new blocks.
The block reward is distributed with 80% going to the masternodes and 20% going to miners. The masternode system is referred to as Proof of Service (PoSe), since the masternodes provide crucial services that support the features of the network.
Masternodes also oversee the network and have the power to reject improperly formed blocks from miners. If a miner tried to take the entire block reward for themselves, the masternode network would orphan the block ensuring that it would not be added to the blockchain.
In short, miners power the first tier, which is the basic sending and receiving of funds and prevention of double spending. Masternodes power the second tier, which provide the added features that make Wolfcoin different from other cryptocurrencies. Masternodes do not mine, and mining computers cannot serve as masternodes.
Additionally, each masternode is “secured” by 10,000 WOLF. Those WOLF remain under the sole control of their owner at all times. The funds are not locked in any way; however, if enough of the funds are moved or spent to cause the user’s holdings to drop below 10,000 Wolfcoin, the associated masternode will go offline and stop receiving rewards.
By pre-ordering your WolfpackBOT subscription, you will also receive Wolfcoin as a reward that can be utilized in the following ways:
  • Redeemable for WolfpackBOT subscriptions
  • Redeemable for the WolfBOX Console
  • Redeemable for WolfpackBOT and Wolfcoin apparel and merchandise
  • Fungible utility that can be exchanged for like value on exchanges
When you hold at least 10,000 Wolfcoin in your Wolfcoin wallet connected to a static IP address, you will become a masternode, meaning you will have a chance to receive 80 percent of the block reward every sixty seconds.

THE FEATURES

WolfpackBOT Automated Trading Software:

After the crowdsale, Wolfcoin will be the exclusive method of payment for WolfpackBOT Automated Trading Software subscriptions.

Multiple Technical Analysis Indicators:

WolfpackBOT offers the widest array of multiple Technical Analysis indicators, oscillators, configurations and settings available in the world of Automated Cryptocurrency Trading Bots. WolfpackBOT provides Bollinger Bands, Double EMA, Elliot Wave, EMA, EMA Cross, Fibonacci Sequence, KAMA, MA Cross, MACD, RSI, SMA, Stochastic, Stochastic RSI, Triple EMA, and many more!

Shorting Features:

WolfpackBOT includes Cryptocurrency Shorting Features that allow users to short their positions and buy them back at the lower price to maximize their returns.

Copyrighted Crash Protection:

Crash Protection, one of WolfpackBOT's most advanced features, enables users the option to automatically scan and convert all positions to a stable coin at the sign of our proprietary Hidden Bear Divergence Indicator, and then buy back into base currency to resume trading at the sign of our proprietary Hidden Bull Divergence Indicator.

Language Translator:

WolfpackBOT has a built in Language Translator that instantly translates the entire BOT into Dutch, English, French, German, or Spanish.

All Trading Pairs on all available Exchanges:

WolfpackBOT allows our customers to simultaneously trade on multiple cryptocurrency exchanges, and with all the exchange’s trading pairs available for trading. The best part is that it’s all possible on one bot with one subscription to the WerewolfBOT package!

Coin Selector:

While other automated trading platforms only allow for a limited amount of coins per subscription, WolfpackBOT allows all trading pairs and all coins to be traded on all the available major exchanges with the WerewolfBOT subscription. WolfpackBOT's proprietary Coin Selector allows for users to choose whether to trade all cryptocurrencies or blacklist some, thus not trading them at all, as well as search for the highest volume, greatest performing, or a specific volatility range of coins for a given timeframe.

Werewolf Configurations and Settings:

Werewolf Configurations and Settings are copyrighted trading algorithms that use proprietary optimum settings for trading: the perfect configuration for experienced and inexperienced traders alike. These settings can be adjusted to the current market trend, with preset configurations for bear, sideways, and bull markets.

Werewolf Ultimate:

Werewolf Ultimate is the ultimate choice when trading. It doesn't trade a particular trading pair or particular coins, it trades them all. It goes in for the kill to increase the potential returns. Crash Protection is a built-in feature in Werewolf Ultimate.

Werewolf Bull Market:

Werewolf Bull Market are preset settings and configurations that are usable when your Base Trading Pair is in a Bull Run. Werewolf Bull Market settings are optimized for such conditions and should only be used in a Bull Run Market.

Werewolf Sideways Market:

Werewolf Sideways Market are preset settings and configurations that are usable when your Base Trading Pair is trading sideways. Werewolf Sideways Market settings are optimized for such conditions and should only be used in a Sideways Trading Market.

Werewolf Bear Market:

Werewolf Bear Market are preset settings and configurations that are usable when your Base Trading Pair is in a Bear Run. Werewolf Bear Market settings are optimized for such conditions and should only be used in a Bear Run Market.

The WolfBOX Hardware Console:

WolfpackBOT also offers an industry first: a beautiful hardware console, The WolfBOX. Our console comes preloaded with WolfpackBOT Automated Trading Software and also includes a built-in secure hardware wallet. Some of the key features of the WolfBOX include our high-speed CPU, solid-state hard drive, built-in RFID card reader, and integrated Bitpay and Coinbase wallets.

Wolfpack Consulting

Our company offers its services and expertise as Cryptocurrency and Blockchain Specialists to individuals and companies. We offer consulting services in the fields of blockchain and cryptocurrency development and management.

Wolfpack Philanthropy

We are dedicated to the proposition that we have a responsibility to use a portion of our company’s revenue to help create a better world and a brighter future. As we move forward, our philanthropic efforts include environmental stewardship, renewable energy, human rights, economic development, as well as animal and wildlife rescue and conservation with an emphasis on dogs and wolves.

Wolfcoin Information

THE WOLFCOIN Wolfcoin is the coin that fuels all WolfpackBOT's projects.
This utility, coupled with the reward systems with mining and Masternoding capabilities, makes the use of Wolfcoin potentially appealing to all WolfpackBOT users whom are interested in receiving additional Wolfcoin for subscriptions, merchandise and other rewards such as passive cryptocurrency portfolio growth.
THE WOLFCOIN WALLET WolfpackBOT uses our proprietary Wolfcoin Core QT wallet.
February 2018 Conceptual development of WolfpackBOT Software
May 2018 Company Roadmap development Alpha models of WolfpackBOT Software
June 2018 Ongoing research, development, and testing
October 2018 Advertising and Marketing Campaign Starts Wallets available for payment; BTC, BTG, DASH, DOGE, ETC, ETH, LTC October 15 - Pre-registration begins
November 2018 November 1 - Crowdsale Stage I begins
December 2018 Official presentation of WolfpackBOT beta Software Preview Creation of Wolfcoin (WOLF: 300,000,000 coins pre-mined on Genesis Block) WolfpackBOT beta Software release to selected customers
December 21 - Launch network and mine Genesis block
December 22 - PoW / Mainnet
December 23 - Blockchain and network testing
December 28 - Iquidis Wolfcoin Block Explorer released on our website
January 2019 January 1 - Wolfcoin Core wallets available for download on the website January 1 - Wallet and Masternode Tutorial available January 1 - Masternode and PoW instructional videos available January 1 - Subscription Pre-order Coin Rewards disbursed Announcement listing WOLF on top-10 Exchange
February 2019 February 1 - Crowdsale Stage I Ends February 1 - Crowdsale Stage II Begins
March 2019 March 15 - Crowdsale Stage II Ends March 15 - Crowdsale Stage III Begins WolfpackBOT Software roll-out to contributors WolfBOX Console available for Pre-order
April 2019 WolfpackBOT Subscriptions available for customers First Major version released: automated, manual, and paper trading WolfpackBOT Live support center April 30 - Crowdsale Stage III Ends
May 2019 WolfBOX Consoles Pre-orders first shipment
June 2019 New trading features such as new exchanges, strategy options and indicators
July 2019 New trading features such as new exchanges, strategy options or indicators
August 2019 WolfpackBOT Software Trading Platform V2.0 Second major release: Strategy Marketplace and Back-testing
September 2019 New trading features such as new exchanges, strategy options or indicators
October 2019 WolfpackBOT Software Trading Platform V3.0 Third major release: Signals Marketplace (Supporting 3rd Party App Signals) Mobile Application for WolfpackBOT Software and Trading Platform
November 2019 New trading features such as new exchanges, strategy options or indicator
December 2019 WolfpackBOT Software Trading Platform V4.0
January 2020 WolfpackBOT Software Trading Platform V5.0 Fourth major release: Machine Learning Strategy Optimization

THE AMAZING TEAM

Philip Longhurst Chief Executive Officer The leader of our pack and the man behind the WolfpackBOT trading bot, Philip Longhurst is a mathematical genius, engineer, day trader, and animal rescuer. As an account manager for J.P. Morgan and MBNA Bank, Phil managed the accounts of several high-profile clients and businesses. He has been successfully trading stocks for over twenty-five years and has successfully applied his trading expertise and mathematical acumen to the cryptocurrency market since 2013.
Philip holds bachelor's degrees in mechanical engineering and business administration and is a loving husband, father, and family man who has been rescuing dogs since 1995. His driving desire is to use the success of Wolfpack Group to create a brighter future for humanity. He currently resides in the United States of America with his wife, daughter, and dogs.
Rogier Pointl Chief Financial Officer Rogier Pointl is a successful entrepreneur with nearly twenty-five years of experience in business management, marketing, financial administration, economics, and fintech. Rogier holds bachelor's degrees in Business Communications and Financial Administration. He is a pioneer in the field of virtual reality, having served as CEO and owner of Simworld, the first virtual reality racing center in Europe, where he oversaw the development of advanced simulator and virtual reality hardware and software.
Rogier is an experienced trader and has been trading stocks since 2007. He began applying his expertise to the cryptocurrency market in 2010, gaining experience as a Bitcoin miner along the way. Rogier is a loving husband and father and currently resides in the Netherlands with his wife and two daughters.
Jason Cormier Chief Technical Officer Jason Cormier is a humble -but extraordinary- individual who is blessed with a Mensa IQ of 151, he is continually driven by a desire for knowledge and self-growth. He is self-taught in Visual Basics, C#, C++, HTML, and CSS and began developing programs and applications at the age of 14, including the TCB Wallet, which was the first ever wallet program that held its users' log in names and passwords. Jason is a cryptocurrency guru whose expertise includes cryptocurrency mining farms, proof-of-stake, masternodes, and cryptocurrency trading.
Jason holds Associate degrees in Computer Science and Psychology, and currently resides in the United States of America with his wife and son.
Jay McKinney Chief Web Development and Design Officer Jay is a veteran of the Iraq War who put his life on the line in combat to protect our freedoms. To center himself while stationed in the Iraqi warzone, he taught himself C# as he knew honing his Web Development skills would help him provide a better future for himself and his family. Upon returning home safely, he worked his way through college and holds bachelor's degrees in Computer Programming and Web Development & Design.
Jay has worked for the Kentucky Housing Corporation, serving as a software engineer and web developer. He is a loving family man who currently resides in the United States of America with his wife and two children.
David Johnson Chief Software Development Officer David holds a Master of Science degree in Information Systems and a Bachelor's degree in Business Administration with a specialization in Information Systems, graduating with Magna Cum Laude status. He has worked for the Kentucky Housing Corporation, serving as a network analyst and software engineer. As an entrepreneur, he has owned his own web and software development company since 2009, creating and maintaining several websites in C# and PHP, and has been operating the crypto-oriented YouTube channel BigBits since 2017, where he discusses automated Cryptocurrency trading strategies.
David is a proud father of two and resides in the United States of America with his wife and children. Like any good Kentuckian, he is a huge fan of the University of Kentucky's college sports teams.
Gabriel Condrea Software and Web Development Officer Gabriel Condrea holds a bachelor's degree in electrical and computer engineering and has worked as a software developer and senior systems engineer in both the United States and the United Kingdom, working with a variety of programming languages and IDEs. He has used his expertise to create Manufacturing and SCADA systems in industrial applications.
Gabriel also applies his engineering skills to cryptocurrency day trading, seeking to automate the process. He loves to travel and currently resides in the United States with his girlfriend.
Igor Otorepec Chief Hardware Development Officer Igor is an engineer with twenty years of experience specializing in advanced PLC programming and industrial robotics. He is also an IT security expert and a CEC Certified Ethical Cracker who uses his skills to expose and patch security vulnerabilities in blockchain codes.
Igor is an advanced cryptocurrency trader and Kung Fu master who uses bio-hacking as a way of life to keep his 'chi' constantly centered. He currently resides in Austria with his loving wife.
Manik Ehhsan Director of Marketing and Public Relations Manik holds a Bachelor's degree in Computer Science and has over five years of experience in Web Development, Digital Marketing and Graphics Design. He has also managed the marketing for more than 30 successful Cryptocurrency start-ups and projects, and specializes in SEO and ASO. Manik is also a Cryptocurrency project promotion expert with an emphasis on Masternodes and building Social Media Communities.
Manik has focused his life on Cryptocurrency and currently resides in Bangladesh with his loving family.
Rance Garrison Chief Marketing Officer Rance Garrison holds a bachelor's degree in Business Administration and specialized in Seminary Studies for his Master's degree. He served as an AmeriCorps VISTA at WMMT-FM, the radio station owned by Appalshop, an arts and education center in Kentucky, and has also specialized in local cable television advertising. Rance is also a musician who has released several albums independently over the last decade.
Rance is very dedicated to his local community and is most excited by the potential implications of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology for rural and remote economies. He currently resides in the United States of America with his wife, dog, and cats.
Paul Gabens Chief Public Relations Officer A master negotiator with a penchant for strategy, Paul Gabens brings more than twenty years of marketing and promotional experience in the automotive, hospitality, and entertainment industries to the Wolfpack. He is also an avid stock and cryptocurrency trader, having first entered into the cryptocurrency market two years ago, embracing his passion for crypto with the same vigor as his love for travel, classic cars, extreme roller coasters, and surfing.
Paul holds degrees in business management, marketing, and automotive aftermarket. He currently resides in the United States with his fiancé and two cats.
Blake Stanley Marketing and Social Media Officer Blake Stanley is a cryptocurrency enthusiast who also has over six years of experience managing both government and private sector client and customer relations. A strategic thinker and expert in the field of social media-based advertising, Blake also owns and manages his own online marketing company where he has been successfully curating and implementing online marketing and advertising strategies for his clients for the past three years.
Blake is a proud father and family man and currently lives in the United States with his daughter and fiancé.
Martin Kilgore Market and Trading Analyst Martin Kilgore holds bachelor’s degrees in both accounting and mathematics, having researched Knot Theory and the Jones Polynomial during his undergraduate studies, giving him a firm edge when analyzing market conditions. He has worked as a staff accountant for several governmental organizations.
Martin lives in the United States with his fiancé.
Jonathan McDonald Chief Trading Strategy Officer Jonathan has honed his trading skills over the past five years by studying and implementing economics, financial strategy, Forex trading analysis and trading bots. Through his constant learning, he discovered Cryptocurrency after seeing the difference in market volatility and high yield trading. His fine-tuned trading strategies complement Crypto markets perfectly, and he has been implementing trading strategies to the Cryptocurrency market for over a year with phenomenal results. Jonathan is constantly improving his trading skills with an emphasis on scalping techniques. He has applied his trading skillset to the WolfpackBOT and enjoys working alongside the Wolfpack in creating the fastest trading bot on the market.
Jonathan currently resides in Canada with his supportive girlfriend and family.
Web site: https://www.wolfpackbot.com/
Technical document: https://www.wolfpackbot.com/Pdf/whitepaper_en.pdf
Bounty0x username: idrixoxo
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<iframe src="//www.googletagmanager.com/ns.html?id=GTM-WRV2FK" height="0" width="0" style="display:none;visibility:hidden"></iframe> <!-- End Google Tag Manager --> <!-- Top 10 Best Forex Trading Strategies PDF Report If you’re in the pursuit of nding the Best Forex trading Strategy and the keys to choosing a strategy that rst ts your own personality than this post is going to reveal the top 10 best Forex trading strategies that work. The best way to consistently make pro ts in the Forex market it completely and totally depends on you, the trader ... This e-book aims to outline a simple method of using daily charts to profit from forex. Why daily charts? Using the dailies allows the trader to work trading into his daily routine, being able to assess every opportunity but stopping the charts from taking over his life. In short, a tradable system for people living in the real world. This Forex Trading PDF is written in such a way that even complete beginners can understand it and learn from it. In other words, we have read tons of Forex books, opened and closed thousands of trades; have filtered out 💦all the needed basics for beginner traders, and simplified them. So all you have to do is to take this FREE knowledge and start your online currency trading journey ... The simplest forex trading strategies pdf. This forex trading method is based entirely on the three EMAs as follows: EMA 15 (gold) EMA 30 (green) EMA 60 (brown) Exponential Moving Average (EMA) is one of two types of Moving Average (MA) - the average price of the closing price of a certain digital currency pair in an optional X period. The EMA is calculated by the exponential formula, which is ... THE CONTINUATION METHOD By Cecil Robles, Founder/CEO Your Forex Mentor WHY YOUR ENTRY STRATEGY [ALMOST] DOESN’T EVEN MATTER By Casey Stubbs, Founder, Winners Edge Trading THE BANK TRADING FOREX STRATEGY By Sterling Suhr, Co-Founder, Day Trading Forex The Final Frontier - Order Flow Trading Through Volume Price Analysis By Ricardo Menjivar, Founder, Phoenix Trading Strategies Trading the ... Make Forex Trading Simple Free PDF. Sona Matasyan, 12 Pages, 2013. MetaTrader4 (MT4) User Guide Free PDF. MetaQuotes, 65 Pages. The Little Book of Currency Trading: How to Make Big Profits in the World of Forex. Kathy Lien, 197 Pages, 2011. Trading Forex: What Investors Need to Know Free PDF. National Futures Association, 24 Pages, 2010 . Trading the Line: How to Use Trendlines to Spot ...

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FREE EbookOnline For Download online MT4/MT5 High ...

WATCH: NO LOSS Forex hedging strategy - Explained how to hedge your trades - #forextradingstrategies. PEOPLE KEEP ASKING IN THE COMMENTS, HERE IS MY PRIMARY ... Stratégie de Trading basé sur le Price action, méthode de trading sans indicateurs techniques. Le price ation dans le trading forex a pour but de trader just... THE ABSOLUTE BEST WAY TO TRADE SUPPORT AND RESISTANCE IN TRADING **FOREX-CRYPTOCURRENCY-STOCKS** What Broker Do I recommend? https://bit.ly/2QCWYTD Disclaime... The 4 forex strategies that every trader should know ! 🚨🚨Trading Performance 🚨🚨 Improve Your Trading Performance at our Fundamental Trading Academy https://w... Ok. So here is the strategy that I have put together that you have seen me use to make my us30 gains. This method can also be used to trade the Nas100 and SP... ☟☟ Link Download MT4/MT5 High Probability Forex Trading Method [PDF] Download PDF Click Link Below ☟☟ : Lіnk ☞☞ : https://PDFebook.digital/1536910198?LM ... How to find suitable MT4 and/or MT5 forex broker for arbitrage trading. Loading... Autoplay When autoplay is enabled, a suggested video will automatically play next.

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